Unit 80: HOW?
Here are some ways to describe:
1. the style, or way, of doing something: the manner
2. the method of doing something
We can use:
ADVERBS (Unit 64)
He spoke loudly.
He nervously opened his bank statement.
PREPOSITION + NOUN PHRASE (Unit 45)
He spoke in a loud voice.
He ran with difficulty.
The car approached at great speed.
ACTIVITIES (by + -ing FORM OF VERB)
We kept warm by jumping up and down.
You know how to insert your bank card by reading the instructions.
TRAVEL AND COMMUNICATION
We use by:
We traveled by air.
I prefer traveling by boat.
We sent the message by fax.
You can cross the road by the bridge.
We decided to go on foot.
THINGS YOU USE
She cut the bread with a knife. (She used a knife.)
You can't get in without a key. (You need a key.)
These houses are made with cement. (and other things)
This wallet is made of leather. (and nothing else)
Paper is made from wood. (We change the wood.)
Aluminum is extracted by electricity. (by for processes)
The message was sent by Jasper.
(= Jasper sent the message.)
The message was sent with Jasper.
( = Jasper carried the message; somebody else sent it.)
NOTICE: The message was sent with Jasper. That way, it arrived on Saturday.