Unit 50: PERSONAL PRONOUNS
We can use a personal pronoun instead of a noun phrase (Unit 45) when we can already understand who or what.
[S] I [O] me [G] my [G] mine [R] myself
[S] You [O] you [G] your [G] yours [R] yourself
[S] He [O] him [G] his [G] his [R] himself
[S] She [O] her [G] hers [G] hers [R] herself
[S] It [O] it [G] its [R] itself
[S] We [O] us [G] our [G] ours [R] ourselves
[S] You [O] you [G] your [G] yours [R] yourselves
[S] They [O] them [G] their [G] theirs [R] themselves
Subject pronounsWhen the pronoun is the subject of the sentence (Unit 1) or the subject of a clause.
Mila cut all of the vegetables. Then she cooked burgers on the grill.
Zach said that he had to leave early.
Mila had done the prep already so it was easy for her.
These grills are very old. They don't heat evenly.
WHEN THE NOUN AFTER THE VERB IS THE SAME AS THE SUBJECT
Mila had asked herself whether she was prepared to start cooking on the grill. = Mila asked Mila.
Zach cut himself. = Zach cut Zach.
Give yourselves a lunch break! (The subject is you.)
TO POINT STRONGLY TO THE SUBJECT.
I made it myself. (Nobody made it for me.)
NOTICE: He lives by himself. = He lives alone.
Genitive pronounsWhen we are talking about who things belong to.
WITH A NOUN
I've lost my apron.
Is that your cutting board?
Reed has eaten his lunch.
Reed and Mila are selling their cookbook.
WITHOUT A NOUN
This is Marcia's order. Where's mine?
Marcia is talking to an old customer of hers.
That's my table. Yours is over there.
NOTICE: She's cut her finger. NOT she's cut the finger
Object pronounsWhen we cannot use any of the other pronouns.
Marcia had to go because Neal was waiting for her.
Marcia had taken the order before so she found it easy.
The customers sat with the menus in front of them.
Could you help us please?
Who's serving that table? It's me.
Special uses of pronouns
FOR THE WEATHER
It's very hot.
It was raining.
It's half past two.
It was very early.
It's two kilometres to the centre.FOR IDENTIFYING PEOPLE
Who's that at the door? It's me.
youFOR ANYONE OR EVERYONE (USUALLY IN SPEAKING)
The buses here are so full that you often have to stand.
You mustn't smoke in a non-smoking area.
theyFOR A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO YOU DO NOT KNOW PERSONALLY
They say it's going to be a good summer.
They're putting up the price of gasoline.
If anyone has finished, they can go.
Someone hasn't eaten their food.