Unit 24: PRESENT PERFECT -- FORMATION
In the simple formation, the participle is the lexical verb (Unit 3); in the continuous formation, the participle is been, with the -ing form of the lexical verb after it.
Simple (have + past participle)
He has worked very hard this shift.
The meeting has not started yet.
I have rented a truck for two weeks.
They haven't fixed my truck yet.
Have you finished yet?
What has she decided to do?
Why have they left?
NOTICE: For spelling problems with the -ing form of the verb, look at Appendix 6.
Continuous (have been -ing form)
I have been working on the rigs for four years.
He has been welding on the pipeline for two months.
We've been loading pipe onto this truck all day.
Have you been working hard recently?
What's she been doing?
Why have you been loading so much?
Notes on past participles
Have can be an AUXILIARY and a LEXICAL verb (Unit 3).
Have the girls had lunch yet?
We have been having a good time.
Go has two past participles
He has gone to Edmonton. [not here now]
He has been to Edmonton. [went and returned]
NOTICE: Unit 25 tells you about the use of present perfect.